Saturday, 7 July 2018

Monday, 2 April 2018

PROJECT: EFFECTS OF OPERATING VARIABLES, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS STUDIES


EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM MANGO SEEDS: 
EFFECTS OF OPERATING VARIABLES, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS STUDIES

Project: Extraction of Essentials oils of formulation of citrus-scent perfume.



FORMULATION OF CITRUS SCENT PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS AND ORANGE EXTRACTED ESSENTIAL OILS. 

INTRODUCTION


BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Perfume is a fragrant liquid made from an extract that has been distilled in alcohol and water. Traditional perfumes were made from plant and animal substances and prepared in the form of water, oils, unguents, powders and incense. A perfume must contain over 15% of fragrance oils in alcohol (Herman, 2013). Techniques involved in perfume extraction from plants include; solvent extraction, distillation, expression, enfleurage method. These methods to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds that are obtained from the raw materials. The  important thing in relation to perfume making is that there are three basic key ingredients needed to produce perfumes; essential oils (these have been extracted from various plants (organic or nonorganic) and when combined give the smell of the perfume,alcohol(which helps in dispersion) and distilled water/carrier oil (merriam-webster 1828).

Monday, 11 December 2017

DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS (PART 2)

The Full Adder
   In the previous article, the half adder was introduced, in this article, I am mainly going to be focussing on the full adder. Before moving forward I would for you to go back and do a little revision of the half adder.


THE FULL ADDER

   The full adder unlike the half adder can add larger binary numbers, it takes in three inputs and gives out a sum and a carry output. The  major difference between the full and half adder is the fact that the half adder is only used to add least significant bits (LSB)  without accounting for the carryout of the previous addition. While the full adder is used to add up most significant bits (MSB) and  LSBs and also taking into account the carry out from the previous additions.

   At this point it will be wise for us to recall the procedures for adding larger binary numbers; firstly, we begin with the addition of the LSBs of the two numbers, we record the sum under the LSB column and take the carry, if any to the next higher column bits. As a result, when we add the next adjacent higher column bits, we would be required to add three bits if there were a carry from the previous addition. We continue with the same procedure of adding the next two LSBs and the carry if there is, until we get to the MSB. Therefore, if want a hardware that can add larger binary numbers, it is therefore of utmost importance that the full adder circuit must be implemented. The truth table and equations coupled with the circuit is shown below;

A
B
Cin
Sum
Cout
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
Fig.1.  Truth Table


Fig.2.  Equations of Full adder


Fig.2. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


    
   The full adder described above forms the basic building block of binary adders. However, a single full adder circuit can be used to add one bit binary numbers only. A  cascade arrangement of these adders can be used to construct adders capable of adding binary numbers with a large number of bits. A five bit binary adder would require four full adders.
    This brings us to the end of this part, if you want the video on how to simulate the full adder to add larger number of bits, please comment below for the link.

Sunday, 26 November 2017

DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS (PART I)

COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS
  This article is going to be in parts because it is going to be a broad course. This course will contain the simulations of all the digital circuits that will be taught.

Arithmetic Circuits
    Arithmetic circuits are circuits that performs arithmetic operations on binary numbers. In a computer, these operations are performed in the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). This is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. The ALU is responsible for performing two operations; the arithmetic and logic operations.
   The arithmetic operations includes; Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication(process of repeated additions) and Division(process of repeated subtraction); while the logic operations include AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT .etc.
    The fundamental building blocks that forms all hardware used to perform all the arithmetic operations on binary numbers mentioned above includes; Full adder, Half adder, Full subtractor, Half subtractor and Controlled inverter.

Half Adder
   It can be said to be the arithmetic circuit block that can be used to add two bits (which are called the inputs) to produce to outputs; the sum and the carry outputs.
   The truth table for the half adder can be seen below;

A
B
Sum
Carry
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
 fig .1. Truth table of the half adder
fig .2.block symbol of the half adder
   The circuit diagram of the half adder can drawn from the equation which can be gotten from the truth table above;

fig .3.
   As can be seen in the picture above, the sum of the half adder can either be obtained by using the NOT, AND and the NOR gates or simply using the EXOR gate. While the carry can simply be realised by using the AND gate.

The circuit of the half adder can be seen below;


fig. 4.
   The complete video on how to simulate this will be available soon, please comment below if you have any questions.


Saturday, 25 November 2017

Principles Of Current Limiting Reactors

INTRODUCTION
Current limiting reactor

    In electrical Engineering, a current limiting reactor is an inductive coil having a large inductive reactance in comparison to their resistance and are used to reduce short circuit current which result from plant expansions and power source additions to a level that can be adequately handled by existing distribution systems.
    Reactors are used to limit the short circuit current which can lead the damage of the power system equipment.

PRINCIPLES OF CURRENT LIMITING REACTORS
    The inductive reactance is chosen to be low enough for an acceptable voltage drop during normal operation but high enough to restrict a short circuit to the rating of the switch gear.

    If the resistance of a circuit during fault is 'X' and 'E' voltages are given, then the short circuit current can be calculated as; Isc =E/X, i.e , the reactant is inversely proportional to the current. If 'X' increases, Isc decreases and vice-versa.

    Short circuit current depend on the generating capacity, fault point voltage and the reactance of the circuit.

   The rating of the reactors are given in KVA and the formula for percentage reactance is
     
    %X = KVdrop / KV(phase voltage).



PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF CURRENT LIMITING REACTORS

     The primary functions of current limiting reactors are;

  • To reduce the flow of current into a short circuit so as to protect the power system apparatus and parts of the system from excessive mechanical stress and over heating.
  • To localise the faults by limiting the current that flows into the fault from other healthy feeders or part of the system.

  • To reduce the duty imposed on switching equipment during short circuits.


 REACTOR RATING

The rating of the reactor is usually expressed in terms of percentage and on a three phase system operating at 11KV +20% is one which will have a voltage drop of 1,270 volts across it with full load flowing through it.

Other ratings include;
  • Continuous Rated Current
     It is the r.m.s. value of current which the reactor can carry continuously with the temperature rise of current carrying parts within specified limits. (e.g 100A).

  • Rated Short-Time Current
    It is the symmetrical r.m.s value of fault current which the reactor can carry for specified short time duration (e.g, 60KVA for 1second).

  • Rated Voltage
   This is the line to line service voltage to which the reactor is designed.

  • Short Circuit Rating
  This refers to the amount of mechanical and thermal stress during short circuit conditions the reactor can withstand for a specified period of time.

 So here's a little exercise to try yourself.

1. The figure below shows a power system where load at bus 5 is fed by generators at bus 1 and bus 4. The generators are rated at 150MVA, 11KV with sub-transient  reactance of 25%. The transformers are rated each at 150MVA, 11/112KV and have a leakage reactance of 8%. The lines have an inductance of 1mH/phase/km. Line L1 is 100Km long while lines L2 and L3 are each of 50Km in length. Find the fault current and MVA for a 3-phase fault at bus 5.


fig. 1.
Please comment below if you need a detailed solution to the exercise.



Saturday, 16 September 2017

Design And Construction Of 2kva Pure Sine Wave Inverter

INVERTER




INTRODUCTION


An inverter is a device that changes D.C. voltage into A.C. voltage. A direct current (D.C) is a current that flows in only one direction, while an alternating current (A.C.) is that which flows in both positive and negative directions. Inverters are used to operate electrical equipment from the power produced by a car or boat battery or renewable energy sources, like solar panels or wind turbines. DC power is what batteries store, while AC power is what most electrical appliances need to run. So, an inverter is necessary to convert the power into a usable form.

Thursday, 10 August 2017

Revealed: An Overview of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence 

Inventing machines that have closer characteristics to human beings have become major goal of scientists till date.

The machines are made using computational  models that act and think in a rational manner. This Inventions are a mere sign of evolution.

Sunday, 30 July 2017

Reservoir Fluid & rocks: Natural gas, crude oil composition and Properties of reservoir rocks

oil distribution
Reservoir fluid distribution.


Reservoir science

 A reservoir science is the science of the study of porous rock and accumulated fluid (Petroleum + water). Reservoirs are formed from the consolidation of permeable sediments moved and deposited by fluid medium on the earth surface from a ‘source rock’.

All reservoirs are of the sedimentary structure and hydrocarbons are trapped within the structure by deformation force upon layers at high temperature (structural trap) or by the depositional environmental changes in lithology.


Reservoir fluids

Composition and properties

   Petroleum: This consists of natural gas, crude oil ,condensate  and constituents (Nitrogen oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon (iv) oxide etc). It is referred to as a mixture which is complex, of hydrocarbons (compounds containing hydrogen and oxygen only) and other constituents depending on composition, temperature, pressure etc.

Natural gas:

This is a mixture of individual gas component. Such as;
  • Dry Gas: No liquid just methane.
  • Wet gas: contains liquid droplet with an API gravity of 50-70°API.
  • Acid gas: contains carbon (iv) oxide.
  • Sweet gas: Does not contain hydrogen sulfide.
  • Sour gas: contains hydrogen sulfide.


Properties of Natural gas: 

    Apparent molecular weight, Density, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Gas formation volume factor, Gas isothermal compressibility etc.

Crude oil

  This is a hydrocarbon mixture of individual oil components. The quality is measured in terms of API gravity.
  •     Bitumen: 10°API
  •     Heavy oil: 20 -25°API
  •     Black oil: 30-40°API
  •     Volatile oil: 40-50°API


Properties of crude oil: 

Fluid gravity, Oil density, Oil formation volume factor, Specify gravity, Surface tension, Isothermal compressibility, Total formation volume factor etc.

Condensate

  Gas condensate are hydrocarbon in which at certain conditions of temperature and pressure has led to the condensation of heavy gas in the reservoir. It occurs at critical temperature and pressure conditions.


Reservoir rocks: 

All reservoir rocks are sedimentary rocks for example sandstone, carbonate, evaporates etc. Other types of rocks like; Igneous and sedimentary rocks cannot form reservoir rock because of their source of formation, structure and properties.

Classification of reservoir rocks includes

             According to Lithology
        Sand stones
        Carbonates
        Evaporites
          According to Strength
        Unconsolidated
        Partially Consolidated
        Friable
        Consolidated
          According to Pressure
                  -- Normal Pressure
                  -- Abnormal Pressure
                 -- Subnormal
                 -- Geo pressured
          According to Fluid Content
                 -- Gas Reservoir
                 -- Oil Reservoir
                 -- Condensate Reservoir
                 -- Multiphase Reservoir

Properties of reservoir rocks includes

Flow properties
  • Porosity: This refers to the fractional void space within the reservoir rock that is available for storing fluid.

        Porosity = pore volume/bulk volume

  • Permeability (K): this is a property of porous medium which measures capability of rock formation to transmit fluid. It is the interconnection of void spaces to enable transmission or flow of fluids. Its S.I unit is in Darcy.

Elastic properties
   This is related to the strength of rock. It is the reversible deformation by the action of stress under a given external or internal pressure . It includes; stress, strain Poisson Ratio ,Bulk Modulus (Function of Change in Volume) , Shear Modulus (Function of Change in Shape) , Compression Strength etc

Electrical properties
           These properties help to measure the value of Voltage Resistance and measure of ease with which current will pass through. They include; Resistivity, Conductivity.


Monday, 22 May 2017

Hazards in chemical process industries - Chemical hazard

Chemical hazard



What are hazards?

 Situations that poses a threat or causes harm to people, the environment, or property.

 What is Industrial hazard? -

Any condition produced by industries that may case injury or death to personnel or loss of property. Hazards may be dormant, armed or active.


Prioritisation

 Prioritisation of hazards involves making visible all risks in an operation, the probability of occurrence and the potential damage.

 Then, what is Chemical Hazard: 

     This is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace. It is any chemical that can cause illness, injury, or an emergency.

 It can be divided into; Physical and health risk Chemical hazard may be: Toxic, corrosive, irritant, carcinogenic, mutagens, flammable etc.
Physical and health hazard




Many chemical may cause severe burns, if they come in contact with living tissue. Routes to exposure ingestion inhalation from fumes poisoning explosion


    Duration of Exposure of chemicals


Acute - Short Minutes to hours.
Sub acute - Longer up to 90 days
Chronic - Prolonged /Repeated over days, months & years.
    The effect of the chemicals is independent on duration of exposure, but dependent on concentration and type of chemicals exposed.

Safety measures

1) Wear all required PP Es (professional protective equipment) such as: hand gloves, helmets, eye goggles, safety boots and so on, depending if you will be working with a solid, liquid or gaseous form of hazardous chemicals.

2) Identify the hazardous characteristics of a chemicals using a safety data sheet or a pictogram to know how best to handle them.

Hazard



 Hazardous-waste management is the treatment and disposal of waste that has the ability of causing harm and damage to people, property or environment if it is left untreated or wrong fully disposed.

Characteristics of untreated hazardous waste.


  • Reactivity 
  • Radioactivity 
  • Ignitable 
  • Corrosive 
  • Infectiousness 
  • Toxicity



Watch this self explanatory video

 

Friday, 10 March 2017

General maintenance of film rollers of a machine





Maintenance of film rollers.
This part of an industrial machine contain a certain number of rollers rotating at different speeds. If a film passes through these rollers, it would be stretched out length-wise or width-wise depend on its specification and function. In most cases, the occurs at high temperature for smooth operations and the bearings and materials used must be able to withstand the set temperatures.

Learn how to maintain the film rollers of your equipment and keep the in excellent condition. This part of an equipment is found in fill/seal packaging machinery used in the paper or plastic industry.
    Be sure to also put safety first in any maintenance carried out.


Importance


  • To maintain standards
  • To minimise waste
  • For easy sealing
  • To stretch out fibres




                 READ ALSO: 






                                   Safety Check:      
                          
           (1) Use vacuum cleaner to clean.               
 (2)  Wear all your protective wears (eye goggle, hand gloves, nose mask, an overall )


 Tools
:
Eye Goggle, Nose Mask


 Task
:
Inspect/Clean The Film Rollers
.


 Why:
Ensure Free Movement Of The Film Rollers.
Procedures
1. Put on all required recommended professional and protective equips.
  1. Check for buildup on the Film Rollers.
3. Check if the Films are moving Freely and Properly without friction.
4. Check the rollers have any dent on its surface.
5. If there's build up on the Film Rollers Use clean rag to Thoroughly Clean The Film Rollers.

READ ALSO: 
·         Oil level check
·         Oil consistency check

Conclusion
 The is basically just a general means of maintaining machine film rollers. The are numerous machine design, dimensions, materials of construction etc. In most cases, these rollers may be made of metal alloy, because of its Strength and ability to withstand high temperatures, but some other manufacture may decide to use other materials that best fits their design. Remember to always read the machine manuals.


Friday, 25 November 2016

Maintenance of a Vertical sealing jaw


vertical sealing jaws



INSPECTION TASK

-The vertical seal jaws.

Learn how to maintain the vertical sealing jaws of your equipment and keep the in excellent condition. This part of an equipment is found in vertical form/fill/seal packaging machinery.
   This preventive maintenance is carried out for your equipment or machine with sealing jaws. Be sure to also put safety first in any maintenance carried out.

Importance

  • To maintain standards of your equipment
  • To minimise waste
  • For easy sealing
  • For product safety


     
Preventive maintenance may also require that you to replace some minor parts once in a while to prevent unforeseen circumstance. It is better you spend money on the little things to avoid breaking the bank trying to repair the little things.

                 READ ALSO: 
How to maintain your horizontal sealing jaws



safety alert
Add caption



Safety Check:      (1) Use vacuum cleaner to clean.
                             (2)  Wear all your protective wears (eye    goggle, hand gloves, nose mask, an overall )


 
Tools:  Eye Goggle, Nose Mask


 
Task:   Inspect The Horizontal Sealing Jaws
.


 
Why:  To ensure proper Horizontal Sealing of Sachets.
 Procedures      
           1. Put on all required recommended professional and protective equips.
           2.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups
           3.They Can be Ink Build Up or Powder Build Up on the Jaws
           4.Inch The machine to stop the jaw from rotating to inspect each jaws.
           5.If cleaning is needed carry out cleaning task
           6.Put on all required recommended professional and  protective equipments.
           7.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups