Wednesday, 24 October 2018

Water Pollution

Water Pollution

What is Pollution
Explained below is Water pollution which is kind of hazardous pollution. 

Water Pollution 

When water body is polluted, it threatens aquatic life on both fresh water bodies, oceans and seas.

Fresh water is polluted through the discharge of sewage and other waste substances from farms and also from industries.

Marine pollution is mostly caused by oil spillage, industrial waste, agricultural waste and other waste matter.

Effects of Water pollution

1) Sewage can contaminate drinking water.
2) Aquatic life will be affected.
3) Gammalin 20 has a killing effect of fishes.
4) It makes water unfit for recreational purposes and swimming.
5) Odours emanating can be embarrassing.
6) Epidemic diseases like cholera and diarrhea are very common.
7) Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers can drain into the rivers to kill aquatic animals.
8) Thermal heat from refineries, steel mills, breweries, causes increase in temperature of rivers.
9) Eutrophication causes depletion of oxygen in water.

Friday, 5 October 2018

Air pollution

Read the previous post on Pollution to get the concept. 

What is Air Pollution?

This is mainly caused by air-borne particles, such as; smoke, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, hydrocarbons, chloro fluorocarbon, hydrogen Sulphide and dust.

Effects of Air Pollution 
1) It can cause bronchitis.
2) It can cause Silicosis.
3) It can lead to eye and nose irritation.
4) It can poison the blood forming carboxyl haemoglobin.
5) It can green house effect.
6) Dust and smoke can cause asthma.
7) Lead poison can affect children's IQ.
8) Nitrogen oxide irritates the lungs.

Control of Air Pollution 
1) Industries should be sited away from residential areas.
2) Passing of wastes through filters and absorbents should be put to practice.
3) The use of lead free fuels is important.
4) Avoid driving cars that are not well maintained.

Tuesday, 11 September 2018

Chemistry: Molar Mass, Examples and Solutions

Molar mass

The formula mass or molar mass of a compound is the mass of the correctly written formula or one molecule of the compound, obtained by adding together the appropriate relative atomic masses of the atoms of the elements present in the molecule.

Sunday, 2 September 2018

Monday, 16 July 2018

Periodic table: periodic law, groups, periods

Periodic Table
Table of Contents
1) What is periodic table?
2) What is the periodic law?
3) What are Groups?
4) What are periods?
5) Families of Elements
6) Group 0 to 7 properties.

Periodic table
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number and electron configuration. The periodic table is divided into eight (8) vertical columns known as "Groups" and eight (8) horizontal columns known as "Periods".

Sunday, 19 November 2017

Chemistry: What is Hydrogen? It's Uses, physical properties, chemical properties and methods of preparation


Hydrogen is found in group one of the periodic table. Though, it is non-metal, it is usually placed in group one because it has one valence electron.


Physical Properties of Hydrogen
  •  It is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas.
  • It is neutral to litmus paper.
  • It is insoluble in water.
  • It is the lightest substance known.
  • It has a very low boiling point of (-253-degree Celsius).
  • It is less dense than air.

Chemical Properties of Hydrogen

     1. It reacts with metals to found hydrides.

             2Na + H2 ---> 2NaH

     2. It burns in air to produce steam.
             H2O + O2 ---> 2H2O

    3. It reacts with halogens to produce halides

            H2 + Cl ---> 2Hcl
            H2 + 2Br ---> 2HBr

   4. Acts as a Reducing agent: It reduces oxides to their respective metals
           CuO + H2 ---> Cu + H2O

Uses of hydrogen
  • It is used in the hydrogenation of oil.
  • It is used to manufacture soap and margarine (saponification).
  • It is used in filling balloons.
  • Liquid hydrogen is used for rocket fuel.
  • It is used for welding metals.

Isotopes of hydrogen

Hydrogen has three naturally occurring Isotopes. There are;
  • Protium – ( 11H )
  • Deuterium – ( 12H )
  • Tritium - ( 13H )
“Deuterium oxide” is commonly known as heavy water because it is about 1.1 times heavier than water.  “Protium” has no neutrons, it is the ordinary isotope of hydrogen. “Tritium” is radioactive and rarely found in ordinary hydrogen.


Read more about: Isotopes and isotopy (chemistry)

Laboratory Preparation of hydrogen

Hydrogen can be prepared in the laboratory by;

* Action of dilute acid on metal.
* Action of cold water on sodium.
* Action of steam on red hot iron

Laboratory preparation of hydrogen by the action of dilute acid on metal.

AIM – To prepare hydrogen.                                                                      

APPARATUS – Round bottom flasks, delivery tube, glass jar, thistle funnel, trough etc.

  • Place some pieces of zinc metal in a round bottom flasks
  • Set up the apparatus.

  • Add dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to zinc metal through the thistle funnel.
  • Collect the gas formed over water.

OBSERVATION – As soon as the metal effervescence occurs, gas liberated is collected over water.

CONCLUSION – Hydrogen can be prepared in the laboratory

Industrial preparation of hydrogen

Hydrogen can be prepared in large quantities in the industries by the following ways;
  • Water Gas
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Electrolysis

By Water Gas

When steam is passed over red hot coke at a temperature of about 1100 degree Celsius. The mixture of carbon (ii) oxide or hydrogen gas is produced and this is known as water gas.

H2O + C ---> CO + H2

The product obtained is mixed with excess steam and passed over iron(iii)oxide or Uranium (iii) oxide as a catalyst at a temperature of 450 degree Celsius.

During this process, carbon (ii) oxide in water gas is converted to carbon (iv) oxide and the liberation of excess hydrogen.

CO + H2 + H2O ---> CO + H2

Questions? Comment below.

Monday, 24 October 2016

Basic Separation techniques and experimental setups

separation method

As we have learnt, about mixture earlier.

Therefore, separation technique are method employed to separate a mixture into its different constituents. There are different method used which depend on the nature of the mixture:

These are :
1) Filtration method
2) Evaporation method
3) Decantation method
4) Sublimation method
5) Centrifuging method
6) Distillation method
7) Fractional distillation method
8) Magnetic method
9) Crystallisation method
10) Fractional crystallisation method
11) Separating funnel method
12) Chromatography

1) Filtration method:
         A porous material such as filter paper can be used to separate an insoluble dilute from the solution.
       For example, A suspension of chalk (CaCO3) powder in water  can be separated by passing the mixture through filter paper. During the process, water molecules pass through the filter paper and it is collected as a filtrate in the beaker leaving behind the chalk powder on the filter paper as a residue.
      This method can be used in water purification plant etc.

The setup
filtration method

A) Sieving: This is a separation  process, whereby a sieve is used to separate unwanted materials of different particle sizes. 

2) Evaporation Method
    It is used to recover a dilute from its solution by vaporising. A salt solution can be separated by using evaporation method to dryness. During the process, a solution of salt is placed on a  water bath to attain constant temperature. After a couple of minutes, the solvent turns to  vapour and it is lost to the atmosphere. Leaving behind the salt in evaporation dish.

   Note: This method can only be used for salt that can not be easily decomposed on heating. It is generally used in salt industry and many other industries.


Evaporation method

   3) Sublimation Method
This is a process whereby solid substances turn directly into vapour without passing through an intermediate liquid state.

  Examples of this substances are: Ammonium chloride (NH4CL), Iodine (I), camphor (C10H6O) etc.

The setup 

sublimation method

It is used to separate a mixture of sublime substance and non-substance substances. For Instance, a mixture of ammonium chloride (NH4CL) and sodium chloride can be separated by using sublimation method.

sublimation method

4) Centrifuging method
    A centrifuge is a machine used to spin test tubes containing suspension at high speed. The spinning causes heavy particles in the suspension to settle at the bottom of the test tube while the clear upper layer is decanted.
      This is widely used in quality and testing labs, it can used in hospitals to separate blood samples for its suspension. 


5) Distillation method
Distillation is a technique used to separate liquid or gas mixtures into different fractions of desired purity by the application of removal of heat. It is used to recover a solvent component from a solution. This process can simply be experimented by placing a round bottom flask  containing solution where it is heated to vapourise the solvent, the vapour  is then passed through a lie big condenser, where it cools and condenses into liquid and this is later collected in a receiver. The solute and other impurities are left in the flask.
This method is applied in gin distilleries, water distilleries etc.


Distillation method

 6) Fractional Distillation method
This method is used to separate a mixture of two miscible liquids with different boiling point.
     Note: for fractional distillation to be effective, the differences in boiling point must be greater than 10 degrees Celsius. Example of the Mixtures that can be separated by this method are: a mixture of ethanol and water, crude oil fractions etc .
      During this process, a liquid with lower boiling point distilled over first leaving behind other liquid which are still within the limit of their boiling point.


fractional distillation method

7) Magnetic separation method
  This method is used to separate magnetic substance from non-magnetic substance.
     Magnetic substances are the substances that can be attracted by a magnet. Examples are : iron, nickel, steel etc.
    Magnetic separation can be used for instance, to separate mixture of iron filling and sulphur. It is employed industrially in the process of iron ore.


8) Crystallisation method
 This is used to separate a solution of salt which decomposes easily on heating.
   The salt crystal obtain in this form is pure and usually contains water of Crystallisation. Examples are: CuSo4.5H2O , MgSo4. 7H2O , Na2CO3. 10H2O (sodium trioxocarbonate (iv) decahydrate).
   It is used in the production of sugar and drugs.

9) Fractional crystallisation
        This is used to separate a mixture of two or more solid solute that are present in the same solution at roughly equal amount. The differences in the solubility of different solutes at a particular temperature is put into an advantage.
During the process, the crystals of solute come out at a particular temperature leaving behind the solute which are still within the limit of their solubility in the solution.

10) Separating funnel
   This method is used to separate a mixture of two immiscible liquids (i.e. a polar and non-polar solvent ). An example is a mixture of water and kerosene. Water and kerosene is naturally an insoluble mixture, therefore forming two distinct layers. The lower denser layer is tapped off leaving behind a less dense layer when placed in the funnel.

separating funnel method

11) Chromatography method
   This method is used to separate coloured and colourless substances example, amino acid. The common method is ascending ascending paper chromatography. It comprises an absorbent medium which is a strip of paper. A solution of solute to be separated is spotted on one side of the paper. The paper is then dipped into a solvent in the spot.

    During this process, the solute to be separated mix up with the solvent at a different distance on the paper.

  However, the paper is removed when the solvent has moved up to 3 1/4 of the paper. The mobile phase is the solution and stationary phase is the paper, movement is due to capillary action. It is then dried and stained with chemicals in other to know the position of each solute on the paper.

chromatography setup

Gas Chromatography. 
Those solvents have different boiling points and would separate accordingly. You would get a clear distinct separate peaks for each solvent.
Mixtures that can be separated by Gas chromatography.

a) Liquid mixture including of Benzene, Toluene, Xylene and Trimethylbenzene.
b) Mixture of xylene's (o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene)
c) Mixture of trimethylbenzenes (hemellitene, pseudocumene, and mesitylene

      There other forms of separation such electrophoresis (separates organic molecules based on the interactions with a gel under different travel), extraction, demister ( This method is used to remove liquid from gas streams), drying (used to remove liquid from solid), sieving , stripping, adsorption (the removal of atoms, ions or molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solids to a porous surface) etc. Add yours in the comments box below.