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Project: Extraction of Essentials oils of formulation of citrus-scent perfume.



FORMULATION OF CITRUS SCENT PERFUME FROM LEMONGRASS AND ORANGE EXTRACTED ESSENTIAL OILS. 

INTRODUCTION


BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Perfume is a fragrant liquid made from an extract that has been distilled in alcohol and water. Traditional perfumes were made from plant and animal substances and prepared in the form of water, oils, unguents, powders and incense. A perfume must contain over 15% of fragrance oils in alcohol (Herman, 2013). Techniques involved in perfume extraction from plants include; solvent extraction, distillation, expression, enfleurage method. These methods to a certain extent, distort the odor of the aromatic compounds that are obtained from the raw materials. The  important thing in relation to perfume making is that there are three basic key ingredients needed to produce perfumes; essential oils (these have been extracted from various plants (organic or nonorganic) and when combined give the smell of the perfume,alcohol(which helps in dispersion) and distilled water/carrier oil (merriam-webster 1828).


PERFUME EXTRACTION METHODS

Fragrance extraction refers to the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. The results of the extracts are either essential oils, absolutes, concretes, or butters, depending on the amount of wax in the extracted product. (Nan Martin, 2009) 

COLD PRESSING

This method is cold and does not involve any solvents or heat of any kind. Most of the citrus oils are extracted in this manner including grapefruit, lime, orange and lemon essential oils (Nan Martin, 2009).

SOLVENT EXTRACTION

Solvent extraction is a method of extracting essential oils that is dominated by the perfume industry. And technically does not produce therapeutic grade oils because chemicals such as hexane, acetone, di-methylene-chloride and others are used in the process. Once it is separated out, the chemicals remain in the oil and the oil is used by the perfume industry. (Nan Martin, 2009)



SUPER CRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION (CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTION)

Super critical fluid extraction or carbon dioxide extraction is also a fairly new solvent extraction process that uses carbon dioxide at very high pressure. The carbon dioxide is injected into the tank where the plant material is contained and acts as a solvent to extract the oil.
The carbon dioxide is colorless and odorless liquid and can be completely removed which is a good thing; however, there is no research at this point to verify if there are any effects of using this procedure.
Additionally, the distilling equipment is extremely expensive. So until more is known about this process, it is advised to use only steam distilled and expressed oils. (Nan Martin, 2009)

ENFLEURAGE
Enfleurage is one of the oldest methods of extracting essential oils and is rarely used these days because of its high cost. It involves placing the flower petals on a layer of glass that is first spread with a thin layer of fat called "chassis". The volatile oil diffuses into the fat, then the fat is collected and the oil is extracted from the fat using alcohol. (Nan Martin, 2009)
Once the alcohol evaporates what is left behind is called the absolute. As you can imagine, this is a very time consuming process, but it was the only way to extract delicate flowers like Jasmine for a very long time.

MICROWAVE ASSISTED HYDRO DISTILLATION

Microwave-assisted hydro distillation (MAHD), an  advanced distillation method that take  advantage of microwave heating with the conventional hydro distillation, recently been widely attended for the extraction of essential oil from medicinal plants and herbs due to its economic and green technology. One way in maximizing the efficiency of a method is optimizing its parameter condition to obtain maximum yield.  

EXPERIMENT




RESULTS







TABLE OF CONTENT
CERTIFICATION             ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- I
DEDICATION                  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------II   
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- III    
ABSTRACT                      -----------------------------------------------------------------------------IV  
TABLE OF CONTENT    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------V   
LIST OF FIGURES          -----------------------------------------------------------------------------IX
LIST OF TABLES            -----------------------------------------------------------------------------X  

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1    
1.2 statement of problem     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 Objective of project     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2  
1.4 justification and significance of project     --------------------------------------------------------3
1.5 Scope of work     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 History of perfume     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4       
2.2 Sources of perfume     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------5   
   2.2.1 Aromatic source     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------5    
      2.2.1.1 Plant source     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5     
      2.2.1.2 Animal source      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------7   
      2.2.1.3 Synthetic source     ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8    
2.3 Perfume notes      -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8     
2.4 Perfume storage      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9  
2.5 Uses of perfume  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
     2.5.1 Where and how to apply perfume ----------------------------------------------------------10
2.6 Essential oil      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11     
2.7 chemical constituents of essential oil     ---------------------------------------------------------11
    2.7.1 Hydrocarbons     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------12    
    2.7.2 Terpenes      ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12     
    2.7.3 Alcohol     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14   
    2.7.4 Aldehyde     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14  
    2.7.5 Acid             ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
    2.7.6 Esters          -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
    2.7.7 Ketones     --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15  
    2.7.8 Lactones     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15           
2.8 Purification of essential oil      --------------------------------------------------------------------16
2.9 storage of essential oil     --------------------------------------------------------------------------16     
2.10 perfume extraction methods     ----------------------------------------------------------------- 16
    2.10.1 Cold pressing     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17   
    2.10.2 Solvent extraction     -----------------------------------------------------------------------  17   
    2.10.3 Hydro diffusion     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------17    
    2.10.4 Supercritical fluid extraction     ------------------------------------------------------------17
    2.10.5 Microwave     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------18         
    2.10.6 Hydro distillation     -------------------------------------------------------------------------18   
2.11 Lemon grass     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19     
2.12 Citrus fruits     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20     
2.13 Origin of Lemongrass oil and orange oil     ---------------------------------------------------21
2.14 Properties of lemongrass oil and orange oil     ------------------------------------------------23
2.15 Chemical composition of lemongrass and orange oil     -------------------------------------24
2.16 Hydro distillation technique in extraction     --------------------------------------------------24
2.17 Microwave assisted hydro distillation in extraction     -------------------------------------- 25
2.18 Uses of orange and lemongrass oil     ----------------------------------------------------------25
2.19 Previous study on characterization of aroma active compounds, fruits and peel oil of
Jinchen sweet orange (citrus sinensis) (L.S.Osbeck) by GC-MS     ------------------------------26

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY 
3.1 Sample Preparation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
3.2 Materials and apparatus/equipment used -------------------------------------------------------29
     3.2.1 Materials and reagents -----------------------------------------------------------29
      3.2.2 Apparatus and Procedures      --------------------------------------------------------------30
              3.2.2.1 Apparatus: Microwave Extractor      --------------------------------------------- 30
              3.2.2.2 Apparatus: Hydro distillation Column     ---------------------------------------- 31 
3.2.3. Quality control------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32   
3.2 Formulation of the citrus scented Perfume     ---------------------------------------------------32  
    3.2.1 Blending tips -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------33 

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Extraction of orange peels oil by using microwave Extractor and hydro distillation column----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35    4.1.1 Result from Extraction with different time of extraction (30, 60, 90,120,150 mins)-35
   4.1.2 Discussion of result for the extraction of orange oil---------------------------------------36
4.2 Extraction of Lemongrass oil by using microwave Extractor and a hydro distillation column ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37    4.2.1 Result from Extraction with different time of extraction (30, 60, 90,120, 150 mins)-37
   4.2.2 Discussion of result for the extraction of orange oil---------------------------------------38  

CHAPTER 5 
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 

5.1       Introduction       ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------40
5.2       Recommendations         -------------------------------------------------------------------------41


REFERENCES             ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
APPENDICES           -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------44


How to Buy FULL PROJECT WORK

Price: 3000 naira


Call Geeksterritory Agent 08101186460 to place an order. After payment, send your best email address, depositor’s name, subject(s) paid for to that phone number:


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