Monday, 28 November 2016

Particulate Nature of Matter; Atoms, Molecules and ions

nature of matter

Matter is made up of discrete particles the main ones being atoms, molecules and ions.

Read more on MATTERS


ATOMS
An atom is the smallest particle of an element which can take part in a chemical reaction. An atom can also be said to be the smallest particle of an element that can ever exist and still possess the chemical properties of that element.

MOLECULES
Most atoms cannot exist alone. They generally bond with other atoms to form molecules. Therefore, atoms can be made up of atoms of either the same elements or different elements.
     The number of atoms in each element is called Atomicity of the element.
Most gaseous elements such as chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen etc., are DIATOMIC (Molecules with one atom)
Some elements may be MONO ATOMIC (Molecules with one atom); for example, noble gases (Argon (Ar), helium (He), Neon (Ne))
TRIATOMIC molecules (Molecules with three atom), for example; ozone (O3).
POLYATOMIC molecules (Molecules with three atom), for example; phosphorous, Sulphur.

Atomicity of some molecular elements
ELEMENT                                      FORMULAE                ATOMICITY
Neon                                                 Ne                              1
Argon                                                Ar                              1
Helium                                             He                              1
Hydrogen                                         H2                              2
Nitrogen                                           N2                              2              
Oxygen                                             O2                              2
Chlorine                                           CL2                                   2
Bromine                                           Br2                                   2
Phosphorous                                    p4                                    4
Ozone                                                O3                               3
Sulphur                                              S8                                    8

  
Note: A molecule can be defined as the smallest particle of a substance that can normally exist alone and still retain the chemical properties of that substance be it an element or a compound.

IONS
An ion is formed when an element loses or gains electrons. It carries a positive charge when electrons are lost and negative charge when electrons are gained.
     However, an atomic substance is said to be electrically neutral when it has the same number of positive and negative ions. That is, it has no charge.

Note: An ion can also be defined as any atom or group of atoms which possesses an electric charge. Examples are, NH4+, Ca2+ ,Cu2+ ,O2-, SO42-, SO32- , OH- , Na+  etc.


Conclusion
Previous article emphasised more on the concept of matter, examples and phases of matter. This study on the particulate nature of matter is an introduction for easy understanding and assimilation.

Don't miss out! Subscribe via email for more.

Friday, 25 November 2016

Maintenance of a Vertical sealing jaw


vertical sealing jaws



INSPECTION TASK

-The vertical seal jaws.

Learn how to maintain the vertical sealing jaws of your equipment and keep the in excellent condition. This part of an equipment is found in vertical form/fill/seal packaging machinery.
   This preventive maintenance is carried out for your equipment or machine with sealing jaws. Be sure to also put safety first in any maintenance carried out.

Importance

  • To maintain standards of your equipment
  • To minimise waste
  • For easy sealing
  • For product safety


     
Preventive maintenance may also require that you to replace some minor parts once in a while to prevent unforeseen circumstance. It is better you spend money on the little things to avoid breaking the bank trying to repair the little things.

                 READ ALSO: 
How to maintain your horizontal sealing jaws



safety alert
Add caption



Safety Check:      (1) Use vacuum cleaner to clean.
                             (2)  Wear all your protective wears (eye    goggle, hand gloves, nose mask, an overall )


 
Tools:  Eye Goggle, Nose Mask


 
Task:   Inspect The Horizontal Sealing Jaws
.


 
Why:  To ensure proper Horizontal Sealing of Sachets.
 Procedures      
           1. Put on all required recommended professional and protective equips.
           2.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups
           3.They Can be Ink Build Up or Powder Build Up on the Jaws
           4.Inch The machine to stop the jaw from rotating to inspect each jaws.
           5.If cleaning is needed carry out cleaning task
           6.Put on all required recommended professional and  protective equipments.
           7.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups


Monday, 21 November 2016

Maintenance of a horizontal sealing jaw

horizontal sealing jaws



INSPECTION TASK

-The horizontal seal jaws.

Learn how to maintain the horizontal sealing jaws of your equipment and keep the in excellent condition.
   

                 READ ALSO:



safety reminders




Safety Check:      (1) Use vacuum cleaner to clean.
                             (2)  Wear all your protective wears (eye    goggle, hand gloves, nose mask, an overall )


 
Tools:  Eye Goggle, Nose Mask


 
Task:   Inspect The Horizontal Sealing Jaws
.


 
Why:  To ensure proper Horizontal Sealing of Sachets.
 Procedures      
           1. Put on all required recommended professional and protective equips.
           2.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups
           3.They Can be Ink Build Up or Powder Build Up on the Jaws
           4.Inch The machine to stop the jaw from rotating to inspect each jaws.
           5.If cleaning is needed carry out cleaning task
           6.Put on all required recommended professional and  protective equipments.
           7.Look properly at the surface of the jaws for  any build ups

READ ALSO:
·         Oil level check
·         



Monday, 7 November 2016

Centripetal, centrifugal force; differences, comparison and examples


Centripetal and centrifugal force


Are you a little bit confused about the differences between centripetal and centrifugal force?  Well then, carry on.




Centripetal Force

Definition:       
   
 It is defined as that inward force required to keep objects moving with a constant speed in a circular path.

Formula:         
   
 F = mv2/r
 V = rw
 = Mrw
    Where, "F" is the centripetal force, "m" is the mass of body, "v" is the velocity at
which the body is moving, "r" is the radius and "w" is angular velocity.

Direction:         
   
 The direction of a centripetal force of a body Is perpendicular to the direction of the velocity.

Type of force:    

 Centripetal Force keeps an object moving in its circular path, and prevents it from flying off.

Example:       
       
When you tie a string to a stone, which is then whirled in a Circular path is suddenly cut, the stone files off the circular path.
 Centripetal Force was the force keeping the stone in its initial circular path.


centripetal and centrifugal force



Centrifugal force
                           
Definition:      
     
 It is defined as that outward force required to keep it moving in circular path.

Condition:           
 It must be according to Newton’s third law of motion.

Formula:         
      
F = mv2/r

Direction:      
       
The direction of a centrifugal force of a body is equal and oppositely directed away from the center from which the body is moving. 

Type of force:      

centrifugal force is the inertia of motion.


Example:              

Driving on a mud road and children feeling a force pushing them outwards.

Angular velocity (w)



     This is defined as the angle turned through divided by the elapsed time. Consider a stone whirled in a circular path. It move from the point A to B in T Seconds, so that the radius OA sweeps through the angle ɵ.



Angular velocity (w) = ɵ/t

Linear velocity (v) = s/t

Linear displacement (s) =

Where s is the length of arc AB, which is equal to linear displacement. If the angle ɵ is measured in radians.
The unit of radius is metre.
The unit of angular velocity is radians per second.
The unit of linear velocity is metre per second.
               360° = 2π = One revolution
               180° = π


Example
     A stone whirled at the end of a road 30cm round, makes ten revolution in two seconds. Find:
a)     The angular velocity in radians per second.
b)     The  linear speed,
c)     The distance covered in 5 seconds.

Solution,

  W = ɵ/t
   ɵ = 2π radian

   w = 20/2 = 10π rad/s

   w = (10 x 3.14) rad/s
   w = 31.4 rad/s

According to Ganse, “Centripetal force and centrifugal force are really the exact same force, just in opposite directions because they're experienced from different frames of reference.” 
Thanks for reading. 


      


Thursday, 3 November 2016

Changing oil and oil level check Step by step practice

oil check


  • Oil level check
  • Oil consistency check
  • changing your oil

This is general maintenance tip and it is the most inexpensive of them all for your car or other equipment with a gear box. 

It is very advisable to have regular oil change done on your equipment at a relatively low cost. It might be a cause of you having to replace an important part.