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Thursday, 10 August 2017

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Revealed: An Overview of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence 

Inventing machines that have closer characteristics to human beings is a major goal of scientists till today.

The machines are made using computational  models that act and think in a rational manner. This Inventions is a mere sign of evolution.

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Monday, 7 August 2017

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4 tips for teaching your child science

Teaching your child science

How can you get your child get interested in science? 

All this point to the manner the grow up and also how their minds are built as they grow older .   In other words, if your children grow up in an environment that challenges them critical, this would help in their development as individual. The children at an early age should watch basic science programs, be encouraged to carry out experiments, read and reason. All these would build up the child's interest and even raise their I.Q. 

In choosing the best activities and resources for your kids, always try as much as possible to break things down to the simplest of terms that they can understand or relate to. 

You don't have to know much about science to be able to teach your kids science. The World is changing everyday and so it's advisable your kids know exactly what is going on around them. You can do this by controlling what they read at that young are,  get them basic science related books with pictures and read it to them from time to time.

It is also good as a parent to develop some interest for science as well.

Whenever you are at home or you take your children out, instill that curiosity in them. Ask them a lot of questions about the things in their environment and generally what they see everyday. What is that? How do you think that works? Why did that happen? Then let them answer, don't  scold them if they get it wrong, rather correct them in a subtle way. This will help improve their confidence, and help you to determine just what your child has knowledge about.

The only way they would take you seriously is if you take interest in their activities. The aim here is to develop them intellectually, to enable think and question everything. For example, if your child likes ball sports ask him, why the ball always comes down when he throws it up? or if it's a child that likes to bake ask, why the cake rises? What causes it to rise? etc.

Other tips include..

Choose the Activities

An average child does not think of doing anything productive on their own. That is why it comes down to you as their parent to engage them in simple science activities. You don't what to frustrate them with science by engaging them in hard activities.

Ask the child's opinion

Children learn and accept things better when its within the scope of what they know and love already. So before engaging the children in an activity suggest two or three options that they can from. The more it entices their interest, the more they will enjoy the activity.

Visit places

Studies have shown that people assimilate things they see visually compared to what they have heard. It is better to out on variation to remote environments to appreciate nature more, to a zoo, a convention or museum. The places a child visits is also plays role on how they develop their minds and their I.Q.

Build on a particular interest

There are different branches of science that exist. After carrying out projects, study your child's response to them. Every child is different and has different interest. Then the books or toys you buy don't have to restrict to a particular age,  because now they will learning at a rate set by their interest.

Just remember to be creative when trying to get your child interested in science. Many great men and women of science have done great things in the world we presently Live.
I developed my interest in high school and not from my parents. At the end of the day it depends on the child, but as a parent you should at least try (No harm in that).

If you have any suggestions or additions, kindly comment below.

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Sunday, 30 July 2017

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Physics: static electricity, electric charges and law of charges.

What is electricity?

     The is a form of energy that occurs when electrons flows through a conductor.

Areas Covered

  • Definition of static electricity
  • Nature of atoms of static electricity
  • Electricity charges
  • Law of charges
  • Conductor and insulator

Definition of static electricity

     Static electricity is that produces by friction between two materials. For example, when evolution is rubbed with force or when rod is rubbed with silk.

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Reservoir Fluid & rocks: Natural gas, crude oil composition and Properties of reservoir rocks

oil distribution
Reservoir fluid distribution.

Reservoir science

 A reservoir science is the science of the study of porous rock and accumulated fluid (Petroleum + water). Reservoirs are formed from the consolidation of permeable sediments moved and deposited by fluid medium on the earth surface from a ‘source rock’.

All reservoirs are of the sedimentary structure and hydrocarbons are trapped within the structure by deformation force upon layers at high temperature (structural trap) or by the depositional environmental changes in lithology.

Reservoir fluids

Composition and properties

   Petroleum: This consists of natural gas, crude oil ,condensate  and constituent(Nitrogen oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon (iv) oxide etc). It is referred to a mixture which is complex, of hydrocarbons (compounds containing hydrogen and oxygen only) and other constituents depending on composition, temperature, pressure etc.

Natural gas:

This is mixture of individual gas component. Such as;
  • Dry Gas: No liquid just methane.
  • Wet gas: contains liquid droplet with an API gravity of 50-70°API.
  • Acid gas: contains carbon (iv) oxide.
  • Sweet gas: Does not contain hydrogen sulfide.
  • Sour gas: contains hydrogen sulfide.

Properties of Natural gas: 

    Apparent molecular weight, Density, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Gas formation volume factor, Gas isothermal compressibility etc.

Crude oil

  This is a hydrocarbon mixture of individual oil components. The quality is measured in terms of API gravity.
  •     Bitumen: 10°API
  •     Heavy oil: 20 -25°API
  •     Black oil: 30-40°API
  •     Volatile oil: 40-50°API

Properties of crude oil: 

Fluid gravity, Oil density, Oil formation volume factor, Specify gravity, Surface tension, Isothermal compressibility, Total formation volume factor etc.


  Gas condensate are hydrocarbon in which at certain conditions of temperature and pressure has led to the condensation of heavy gas in the reservoir. It occurs at critical temperature and pressure conditions.

Reservoir rocks: 

All reservoir rocks are sedimentary rocks for example sandstone, carbonate, evaporates etc. Other types of rocks like; Igneous and sedimentary rocks cannot form reservoir rock because of their source of formation, structure and properties.

Classification of reservoir rocks includes

             According to Lithology
        Sand stones
          According to Strength
        Partially Consolidated
          According to Pressure
                  -- Normal Pressure
                  -- Abnormal Pressure
                 -- Subnormal
                 -- Geo pressured
          According to Fluid Content
                 -- Gas Reservoir
                 -- Oil Reservoir
                 -- Condensate Reservoir
                 -- Multiphase Reservoir

Properties of reservoir rocks includes

Flow properties
  • Porosity: This refers to the fractional void space within the reservoir rock that is available for storing fluid.

        Porosity = pore volume/bulk volume

  • Permeability (K): this is a property of porous medium which measures capability of rock formation to transmit fluid. It is the interconnection of void spaces to enable transmission or flow of fluids. Its S.I unit is in Darcy.

Elastic properties This is related to the strength of rock. It is the reversible deformation by the action of stress under a given external of or internal pressure . It includes; stress, strain Poisson Ratio ,Bulk Modulus (Function of Change in Volume) , Shear Modulus (Function of Change in Shape) , Compression Strength etc

Electrical properties
                   These properties help to measure of Voltage Resistance and measure of ease with which current will pass through. They include; Resistivity, Conductivity.

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Monday, 22 May 2017

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Hazards in chemical process industries - Chemical hazard

Chemical hazard

What are hazards?

 Situations that poses a threat or causes harm to people, the environment, or property.

 What is Industrial hazard? -

Any condition produced by industries that may case injury or death to personnel or loss of property. Hazards may be dormant, armed or active.


 Prioritisation of hazards involves making visible all risks in an operation, the probability of occurrence and the potential damage.

 Then, what is Chemical Hazard: 

     This is a type of occupational hazard caused by exposure to chemicals in the workplace. It is any chemical that can cause illness, injury, or an emergency.

 It can be divided into; Physical and health risk Chemical hazard may be: Toxic, corrosive, irritant, carcinogenic, mutagens, flammable etc.
Physical and health hazard

Many chemical may cause severe burns, if they come in contact with living tissue. Routes to exposure ingestion inhalation from fumes poisoning explosion

    Duration of Exposure of chemicals

Acute - Short Minutes to hours.
Sub acute - Longer up to 90 days
Chronic - Prolonged /Repeated over days, months & years.
    The effect of the chemicals is independent on duration of exposure, but dependent on concentration and type of chemicals exposed.

Safety measures

1) Wear all required PP Es (professional protective equipment) such as: hand gloves, helmets, eye goggles, safety boots and so on, depending if you will be working with a solid, liquid or gaseous form of hazardous chemicals.

2) Identify the hazardous characteristics of a chemicals using a safety data sheet or a pictogram to know how best to handle them.


 Hazardous-waste management is the treatment and disposal of waste that has the ability of causing harm and damage to people, property or environment if it is left untreated or wrong fully disposal.  

Characteristics of untreated hazardous waste.

  • Reactivity 
  • Radioactivity 
  • Ignitable 
  • Corrosive 
  • Infectiousness 
  • Toxicity

Watch this self explanatory video

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Wednesday, 17 May 2017

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Cohesive and Adhesive forces: Definition, differences and effects.

Cohesive vs adhesive force

Adhesion and cohesion

Someone emailed me and suggested do a piece on this topic. Well, for easy understanding of the concept of cohesion and adhesion force, i wrote this brief post.

Happy Learning!


  The force of attraction between the molecule of the same substance is called cohesion force.
 The force of attraction between the molecules of different substance is called adhesion force.

     Water has both adhesive and cohesive properties. Adhesion of water to glass is stronger than the cohesion of water. hence, when water is spill ed on a clean glass surface it wets the glass.

On the other hand, the cohesion of mercury is greater than the adhesion to glass. Thus, when mercury is spill ed on glass it forms small spherical droplet or larger flattened droplets and does not wet glass.
Mercury forming a small spherical droplet on glass.

Effects of Cohesion

1) Surface tension: This is a property of liquid that gives it an elastic surface, this is as a result of cohesive forces between adjacent molecules. Here, the molecules at the main body of liquid are pulled equally in allowing directions by neighbouring molecules.
       Water because of this property, heavier objects with less force compared to surface tension to float across it.

2) Meniscus: This is the property of liquid that gives it a curved surface. It has both cohesive and adhesive properties.

Meniscus property at the surface forming a concave and convex curve.

     If the cohesive forces between the liquid molecules is greater than its adhesive force, the surface will form a convex curve.
     If the adhesive forces between the liquid molecules is greater than the cohesive forces, the surface will form a concave curve.

  If  both the adhesive and cohesive forces are equal, the surface is horizontal.

3)  Capillary  action: Here, the cohesive and adhesive forces work together to keep the liquid away from it's natural forces of gravity. The cohesive forces causes the water to form droplets and the adhesive forces keeps the drop in place.
Capillary action
Capillary action on leaves.

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Saturday, 8 April 2017

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Measuring instruments: Micrometre screw gauge vs vernier caliper

Vernier caliper and micrometer screw gauge

Measuring instruments: Micrometre screw gauge vs vernier calliper

What is measurement?

     This is the bedrock of the trade and statistics used for centuries now. It is the ability of one to ascertain the height, size and quantity of something by comparison.
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